sexta-feira, 30 de maio de 2014

A tecnologia e a mudança do mundo de trabalho

The Changing Nature Of Middle Class Work

Tyler Durden's picture

Submitted by Charles Hugh-Smith of OfTwoMinds blog,
As a result of these profound systemic changes, new models of work are emerging.
Gordon T. Long and I recently discussed the changing nature of work--specifically, work that can support a middle class lifestyle and aspirations. This is the third of my series on the decline of the middle class:
The economy is changing in structural ways that affect not just the job market but the nature of work itself. If we ask, what is work?, the conventional answer is tasks that somebody will pay us to do. This is true, but it doesn't address why someone is willing to pay us. The answer is to create value.
In general, work creates value by completing processes. The higher the value of the processes completed, the higher the premium created by labor. Low-value work cannot command a high wage; any organization paying high wages for low-value work will eventually go broke.
Processes that are programmable can be done by machines and software at much lower costs than human labor. (Programmable work is typically tradable, i.e. it can be done anywhere on the planet.) Recall from yesterday's essay that labor costs are rising for structural reasons: as robotics and software get cheaper, human labor gets more expensive.
Urbanization, Baumol's Cost Disease and demands for more government benefits push labor costs higher. Even though wages are stagnant, the labor overhead costs paid by employers--healthcare, pensions, payroll taxes, workers compensation, etc., compensation costs--are soaring.
These trends cannot be reversed by policy tweaks. They are built into the economy whether it is capitalist, socialist, communist or theocratic.
The decline of well-paid, simple-to-learn jobs is a result of technology. Though it is politically popular to blame outsourcing/offshoring for the demise of "good paying manufacturing jobs," if trade barriers were erected tomorrow that banned all imported goods, domestic manufacturers would employ robots and software to produce most goods, for the simple reason that hiring costly humans to complete processes that machines can perform faster, better and cheaper makes no financial sense.
As technology's ability to replace costly human labor moves from the factory floor to the service sector, the nature of middle class work is changing. Technology does not go away because we don't approve of the consequences: processes that are faster, better and cheaper will spread, regardless of our approval or disapproval.
Economies that limit technological innovation stagnate and become poorer.
Jobs that can be learned in a few hours are prone to being replaced by machines.If a process and its end-state can be specified, a machine or software can be programmed to do the work. Human labor that generates low market value cannot command a high wage. We can choose to subsidize higher wages, but these higher costs must be paid by someone else via higher taxes or costs.
There is always an opportunity cost to any such subsidy: what else could have been done with that money? In general, subsidies are mal-investments that siphon money from productive sectors to prop up politically powerful unproductive sectors. Economies that enforce mal-investment eventually decline, as years of under-investment hollow out the parts of the economy that are propping up all the parasitic sectors.
The protected sectors beset by soaring costs (healthcare, higher education, major weaponry programs, finance, etc.) will undergo the creative destruction of technology-based productivity gains for the reason that they are already unaffordable, not just to households but to the nation.
These low-productivity bastions of secure, high-paying middle class jobs cannot keep increasing their share of the national income. Either productivity will increase and costs fall or these sectors will implode as their costs exceed the nation's ability to fund them. Take fast-rising healthcare costs and slow-growth GDP and extend the lines on a chart: can healthcare absorb 90% of GDP? Clearly that won't happen; the sickcare system is already breaking down at 20% of GDP.
As a result of these profound systemic changes, new models of work are emerging. I have written about hybrid work for years, and recently coined the term Mobile Creatives to describe the class of workers who don't fit into traditional job categories. International Workers' Day (May 1) and the New Class: Mobile Creatives
My new book Get a Job, Build a Real Career and Defy a Bewildering Economy is in essence a how-to guide to becoming a Mobile Creative.
Here are a few of the many dynamics Gordon and I discuss in the program:
1. The cost of software and 3-D fabrication tools is declining
2. The speed of change places a premium on adaptability
3. Problem-solving increasingly depends on cross-fertilization of skills
4. The human capital value of integrity and accountability increases as the trust horizon shifts
5. New models of sharing work and revenues are emerging--these are both global and local
And much more....

quinta-feira, 29 de maio de 2014


Wisdom Not Taught in College

Ten life lessons from a long-time warrior in the battle of ideas

About 30 years ago, I was sitting in a rural roadside diner outside Milwaukee. My host, a wealthy businessman, had chosen the spot close to one of his factories. It was an all-day breakfast type of place.
I was there to pitch him for around $10,000 per year for The Institute for Humane Studies (IHS), and I was batting on a good wicket—to use a cricket term from my native England. I knew I was aceing the “ask” and the food was so good I started tossing easy pitches his way, which allowed him to talk and me to eat.
Out poured a ton of deep frustration with his alma mater. He agreed straight away that he would start giving us $10K, and while he deeply resented the same amount going to his Ivy League alma mater, he felt obliged—not happy—to do so.
On my flight home to Dulles I mulled on this, and back in the office next day I dictated (I realize this dates the incident) a letter thanking him for his $10,000 pledge. I went on to suggest that he also give us the other $10,000 currently reserved for the alma mater for my colleagues to invest in the few good free-market students and faculty we knew there. He loved the idea! (The college involved howled.) Other donors got wind of this and we soon had several college-specific funds.

Now, I could talk about making the same philanthropic dollar do two or three jobs all day long (see in particular the business model of the Acton Institute for the Study of Religion and Liberty) but the lesson here is this:

O paradoxo de Fermi

So where is everybody?

Welcome to the Fermi Paradox.

We have no answer to the Fermi Paradox—the best we can do is "possible explanations." And if you ask ten different scientists what their hunch is about the correct one, you'll get ten different answers. You know when you hear about humans of the past debating whether the Earth was round or if the sun revolved around the Earth or thinking that lightning happened because of Zeus, and they seem so primitive and in the dark? That's about where we are with this topic.
In taking a look at some of the most-discussed possible explanations for the Fermi Paradox, let's divide them into two broad categories—those explanations which assume that there's no sign of Type II and Type III Civilizations because there arenone of them out there, and those which assume they're out there and we're not seeing or hearing anything for other reasons:


Duas imprecações medievais contra os advogados: as diatribes de São Bernardo de Claraval e Ramon Llull nas obras Da Consideração (c.1149-1152) e O Livro das Maravilhas (1288-1289) - See more at:

Simplesmente não sabem

A little over a decade ago Leonid Rozenblit and Frank Keil from Yale University suggested that in many instances people believe they understand how something works when in fact their understanding is superficial at best. They called this phenomenon "the illusion of explanatory depth". They began by asking their study participants to rate how well they understood how things like flushing toilets, car speedometers and sewing machines worked, before asking them to explain what they understood and then answer questions on it. The effect they revealed was that, on average, people in the experiment rated their understanding as much worse after it had been put to the test.
What happens, argued the researchers, is that we mistake our familiarity with these things for the belief that we have a detailed understanding of how they work. Usually, nobody tests us and if we have any questions about them we can just take a look. Psychologists call this idea that humans have a tendency to take mental short cuts when making decisions or assessments the "cognitive miser" theory.

US imigração 2010 e 1910


Spinning dancer

Determine com sua mente a direção do giro da moça pela direita e esquerda

domingo, 25 de maio de 2014


Las 8 promesas jamás cumplidas de Fidel Castro

1. “Tengo la seguridad de que en el curso de breves años elevaremos el estándar de vida del cubano superior al de Estados Unidos y del de Rusia”. Fidel Castro 16 de febrero de 1959
2. “Habrá libertad para los que hablan a favor nuestro y para los que hablan en contra nuestro y nos critican”. 1ero. de enero de 1959 en Santiago de Cuba.
3. “Yo no estoy interesado en el poder, no lo ambiciono… Restableceremos todos los derechos y libertades, incluyendo la absoluta libertad de prensa”. Santiago de Cuba, 3 de Enero de 1959.
4. “Nosotros tenemos un país libre. No tenemos censura y el pueblo puede reunirse libremente. Nunca vamos a usar la fuerza y el día que el pueblo no me quiera, me iré.” La Habana, 9 de Enero de 1959.
5. “Cuando se suprime un derecho se termina por suprimir todos los demás derechos, desoyendo la democracia. Las ideas se defienden con razones, no con armas. Soy un amante de la democracia”. declaraciones a la prensa, La Habana, Enero 7, 1959.
6. “Los que hablan de democracia deben empezar por saber en que consiste el respeto a todas las ideas, a todas las creencias, en que consiste la libertad y el derecho de los demás… no perseguimos a nadie… Si perseguimos a un periódico y lo clausuramos, Ah!, cuando se empiece a clausurar un periódico, no se podrá sentir seguro ningún diario, cuando se empiece a perseguir a un hombre por sus ideas políticas, no se podrá sentir seguro nadie, cuando se empiece a hacer restricciones, no se podrá sentir seguro ningún derecho”.
7. “No se concibe un país libre cuya economía es de extranjeros”. Febrero 24 de 1960.
8. “Nosotros hemos dicho que convertiremos a Cuba en el país más próspero de América, hemos dicho que el pueblo de Cuba alcanzará el nivel de vida más alto que ningún país del mundo”. La Habana, 13 de marzo de 1959.


Cadáveres na Indonésia são mantidos morando com seus parentes por meses antes de serem enterrados

Na Indonésia, uma prática comum para alguns étnicos assusta pessoas de outras regiões do mundo. Eles mantêm o corpo de seus entes queridos “vivendo” normalmente em família mesmo depois de mortos

sábado, 24 de maio de 2014


USP reforça tese de que não adianta nada jogar mais recurso público no modelo atual de ensino

Uma reportagem da Folha de hoje mostra que a USP, mergulhada em grave crise financeira e educacional (vem perdendo posições no ranking mundial de qualidade de ensino), contou com expressivo aumento de repasse de verbas públicas nos últimos anos. Elas mais que dobraram de 2006 a 2013, tendo crescido o dobro da inflação no período:
A USP entrou em crise financeira apesar de sucessivos aumentos de repasses, recebidos ao menos nos últimos sete anos. Os recursos subiram 105,3% de 2006 a 2013.
Os repasses provenientes do governo estadual aumentaram em todos esses anos. O acumulado ficou acima da inflação, que foi de 50%.
Só no ano passado a principal universidade do país recebeu R$ 4,4 bilhões do governo. Por decreto, ela ganha o equivalente a 5% do ICMS, principal imposto estadual.
Apesar desta transferência enorme de recursos públicos, a universidade não foi capaz de evitar a crise. Os gastos que mais aumentaram foram ligados a pessoal:

sexta-feira, 23 de maio de 2014


Ronaldo acredita que as críticas feitas pela Fifa ao Brasil por não ter cumprido prazos são justas, já que o país concordou com todas as exigências da entidade quando aceitou ser sede da competição, em 2007.
"E de repente chega aqui é essa burocracia toda, uma confusão, um disse me disse, são os atrasos. É uma pena. Eu me sinto envergonhado, porque é o meu país, o país que eu amo, e a gente não podia estar passando essa imagem para fora", afirmou o ex-jogador em entrevista à Reuters na sede de sua agência de comunicação, em São Paulo, nesta sexta-feira.

Escritores não lidos

Música para estudar

Tolenovelas estimulam separação

"... Nas últimas décadas, a taxa de divórcios aumentou muito no Brasil, apesar do estigma associado às separações. Isso, segundo os pesquisadores, torna o país um "caso interessante de estudo".
Segundo dados divulgados pela ONU, os divórcios pularam de 3,3 para cada 100 casamentos em 1984 para 17,7 em 2002.
"A exposição a estilos de vida modernos mostrados na TV, a funções desempenhadas por mulheres emancipadas e a uma crítica aos valores tradicionais mostrou estar associada aos aumentos nas frações de mulheres separadas e divorciadas nas áreas municipais brasileiras", diz a pesquisa...."

quinta-feira, 22 de maio de 2014


«Humankind cannot bear very much reality.» - T. S. Eliot

Lógica investigativa do Sherlock Holmes

"Once you eliminate the impossible, whatever remains, no matter how improbable, must be the truth."
(Arthur Conan Doyle)

Hitler's Autobahn

Building the Autobahn

Road-building received highest priority under the Hitler government. Within a few weeks of taking office, the regime introduced subsidies for car ownership and outlined an ambitious programme for the German motor industry. Within six months, a new company charged with building the world’s first nationwide highway system was set up; within nine months, the first stretches of motorway were under construction (Vahrenkamp 2010).
Despite claims to the contrary, military considerations never played much of a role. The Autobahn plans were partly based on plans drawn up by a think tank and a private company that had mapped out road trajectories in the 1920s (the Stufa and the Hafraba projects). The new roads used much of the earlier planning, but deviated in some parts.

Educação infantil

Pushy parents 'stressing pupils': Expert says growing number of children are risking their mental health because they are so terrified of getting bad results

  • Professor Byron says pushy parents harming kids 'emotional resilience'
  • Says cautious parents are bringing up children 'in captivity'
  • Claims children aren't given the chance to take risks or fail at anything
Read more:
Follow us: @MailOnline on Twitter | DailyMail on Facebook

terça-feira, 20 de maio de 2014



O doutor em economia fez a prova de conhecimentos gerais do Enade e concluiu que as respostas tidas como certas se baseiam em Ideologias e opiniões, e não em fatos

objetivo-doutrinarEngenheiro e doutor em economia pela Universidade de Chicago. Claudio Haddad. 67 anos, sofreu, digamos assim, uma reprovação no campo acadêmico. Ele resolveu fazer, só de curiosidade, a prova de conhecimentos gerais do Enade, o exame do Ministério da Educação para os recém- formados nas universidades. Segundo o gabarito oficial do MEC, ele errou metade das questões. Como assim? Haddad, que preside o Insper, faculdade que fundou em São Paulo com o nome lbmec, em 1999, depois de quinze anos como sócio do Banco Garantia, está desatualizado? Nada disso. O defeito é da prova, que não se propõe a medir conhecimento, mas a aferir o grau de alinhamento do candidato com a ideologia em voga em Brasília. Diz Haddad: “E uma prova com viés ideológico, alta dose de subjetividade e um olhar simplista sobre as grandes questões da atualidade”.

Conferência na Argentina

- Ronald-Peter Stöferle
- Mark Justin Valek
Fifth International Conference
The Austrian School of Economics in the 21st Century
November 17th, 18th and 19th 2014
Venue: Campus of the Catholic University of Rosario
(Rosario, Argentina)
Organized by: 
Fundación Bases - CMT Group- School of Economics from Rosario of the Catholic University of Argentina
Keynote Speakers: - Benjamin Powell (Texas Tech University - USA)
- Pedro Schwarz (Universidad San Pablo CEU - Spain)
- Mark Skousen (Chapman University - USA)
- Gabriel Zanotti (Universidad Austral / ESEADE - Arg.)
Deadline for reception of papers is October 5th - 2014(acceptance of papers will depend on their evaluation and relevance)
The Virtual Classroom
The Virtual Classroom enables online classes in real time, from anywhere in the world, and interaction in real time with classmates as well as the teacher through a VoIP conference (synchronous method). All you need is an internet connection, speakers, mic and webcam. The virtual classroom allows sharing files (Word, Excel, Power Point, etc.) as well as web pages and videos. In terms of dynamics, it is possible to have up to 6 cameras simultaneously and it has the necessary tools to achieve an identical feedback as traditional classes (excellent sound quality, alternative communication via chat, tools to address the teacher, etc.). Finally, lessons can be recorded and watched again.
Date:May 27th
Time:3 pm Argentinaís time (check your local time)
Registration is Free
For further information and registration: | (please write to both 

segunda-feira, 19 de maio de 2014


Roosevelt e Stalin

By 1943, what had Stalin done to deserve such praise from Roosevelt – the model of altruistic (and even “Holy”) society, it would seem?  There was the Great Purge, various population transfers and deportations, the collectivization of agriculture – contributing to the great famine and the Ukrainian Genocide.  Just during the 1930s, estimates range from 8.5 million to 20 million deaths under Stalin in the Soviet Union.  These are all before the cover of war.

sábado, 17 de maio de 2014

O começo da primeira guerra mundial

"... Germany could not win  a normal two-front war, it could not wait and see Russia grow stronger, it could not risk the threat of American intervention.
The only way out of Germany’s mortal dilemma was developed in 1904 by Count von Schlieffen, chief of the German general staff. His daring plan called for German forces to avoid France’s fortress belt on the Meuse, break through Belgium’s powerful forts, then race southwest in a giant turning movement that would envelop France’s armies along the Marne River and Vosges mountains.
Germany had to strike before full Russian mobilization got under way. Its only hope was to quickly defeat Russia’s western armies, then transfer its troops to the western front against France, which was mobilizing to invade southern Germany and retake Alsace-Lorraine.

Correlação não é causalidade

Spurious Correlations
Discover a new correlation
RSS Feed - an interesting spurious correlation every day!
Video about this site and spurious correlations!

A confiança dos estúpidos

"Ignorance more frequently begets confidence than does knowledge: it is those who know little, and not those who know much, who so positively assert that this or that problem will never be solved by science."
(Charles Darwin)


Como fazer Deus rir

Do you know how to make God laugh? Tell Him your plans.


Indicator do progresso social

Social Progress Index 2014

MEASURING NATIONAL PROGRESS – To truly advance social progress, we must learn to measure it, comprehensively and rigorously. The Social Progress Index offers a rich framework for measuring the multiple dimensions of social progress, benchmarking success, and catalyzing greater human wellbeing. The 2014 version of the Social Progress Index has improved upon the 2013 ‘beta’ version through generous feedback from many observers.

quinta-feira, 15 de maio de 2014


Perguntas sem respostas

Governo e criminosos

Video games

Video Games Build Strong Brains

Too often treated as a social vice rather than a supplement to veggies and fresh air, video games may actually be good for you.

O país em chaos

Temos menos poder do que pensamos

Daniel Kahneman, Ph.D. em Psicologia e Nobel de Economia, aborda três temas sobre o indivíduo: generosidade, diferença entre razão e inteligência e equilíbrio entre sorte e esforço pessoal. Para Kahneman, a ideia de que somos naturalmente egoístas deve levar em conta seu contraponto: também somos naturalmente generosos. Sobre a inteligência, argumenta que a capacidade de resolver problemas, de ser inteligente, não implica racionalidade, a capacidade de monitorar a qualidade dos pensamentos. Por fim, esclarece a questão do sucesso. Enquanto alguns apostam que sucesso depende de esforço pessoal outros enfatizam o poder da sorte. De acordo com Kahneman, é o equilíbrio entre ambos que produz o resultado desejado, pois podemos enfrentar fracassos tanto por coisas que não fizemos quanto por coisas que outras pessoas envolvidas deixaram de fazer.

quarta-feira, 14 de maio de 2014


Hayek Center


“I can date my own personal ‘revolution’ rather exactly to May or June 1933. It was like this. It began .. with Hayek." — John Hicks
- See more at:

Bebida mágica

The Incredible Coconut and its Many Uses

“He who plants a coconut tree, plants food and drink, vessels and clothing, a home for himself and a heritage for his children.” ~ South Seas saying
Chances are, you pass right by an amazing, versatile, and nutritious item in your local market without giving it much thought – the coconut.
Commonly referred to as a fruit, a nut, or a seed, the furry-looking coconut is botanically classified as a drupe, which is a fruit with a hard covering enclosing the seed. Other drupes include peaches, plums, and cherries.
Coconuts are often called the “Tree of Life” because every part of the drupe and tree can be used.  An ideal sustainable food crop, the roots, trunks, leaves, husks, fiber, fruit, water, sap, oil, milk and meat all are useful. The plant not only supplies food for millions of people, but also can be used to make skincare products, household cleaners, toys, instruments, furniture, housing, bowls, utensils, lighting fixtures, baskets, utility boxes, gardening planters, mattresses, draperies, upholstery, chicken feed, carbon-based water filters, and bio-diesel fuels.

Aprenda como simplificar sua vida

Beyond Prepping: 72 Ideas That Will Simplify Your Life

Every once in awhile, I come across something that is perfect just the way it is.  It could be a list, a concept, or simply an essay on a topic that brings understanding and meaning to life.
Today’s article needs no adornment.  Is is a list of ideas that you can embrace to simplify your life and heaven knows, I raise my hand and say “yes, that is something I need and want to do”.  As you read through these, keep in mind that a  simple life means something different for every person.  For me it means cutting out the clutter and spending time doing things with people that I love.

Brasil visto do exterior

Medos e alertas; veja visão estrangeira sobre o País da Copa

A importância da história

F A Hayek, Capitalism and the Historians (University of Chicago Press, 1954).

Hayek quote:  The influence which the writers of history thus exercise on public opinion is probably more immediate and extensive than that of the political theorists who launch new ideas. It seems as though even such new ideas reach wider circles usually not in their abstract form but as the interpretations of particular events. The historian is in this respect at least one step nearer to direct power over public opinion than is the theorist. And long before the professional historian takes up his pen, current controversy about recent events will have created a definite picture, or perhaps several different pictures, of these events which will affect contemporary discussion as much as any division on the merits of new issues.  
[p. 4].

terça-feira, 13 de maio de 2014

20 perguntas sem respostas

Warum ist nicht nichts?

Naturwissenschaft Noch immer sind viele Rätsel der Menschheit nicht gelöst. Die 20 wichtigsten offenen Fragen 

O mito do "rule of law"


10 livros para ganhar uma educação clássica

Top 10 Books For a Classical Education


100 citações de inspiração

Inspirational quotes and motivational quotes have the power to get us through a bad week, and can even  give us the courage to pursue our life’s dreams. In my book, 4 Keys to Happiness and Fulfillment at Work, I share surprising research into the true triggers of workplace motivation. So in the spirit of self motivation, here are 100 inspirational quotes.

Livre expressão

sábado, 10 de maio de 2014

Ciência de verdade

“The formulation of a problem is often more essential than its solution, which may be merely a matter of mathematical or experimental skill. To raise new questions, new possibilities, to regard old problems from a new angle, requires creative imagination and marks real advance in science.” |

Fim do jogo

sexta-feira, 9 de maio de 2014

Fazer grandes coisas

"To do great things, we need to be able to endure tragedy and setbacks," Holiday writes. "We've got to love what we do and all that it entails, good and bad. We have to learn to find joy in every single thing that happens."

Read more:

Justiça social

Quotation of the Day…

by DON BOUDREAUX on MAY 8, 2014
Nobody capable of useful work need today lack food and shelter in the advanced countries, and for those incapable of themselves earning enough these necessities are generally provided outside the market.  Poverty in the relative sense must of course continue to exist outside of any completely egalitarian society: so long as there exists inequality, somebody must be at the bottom of the scale.  But the abolition of absolute poverty is not helped by the endeavour to achieve ‘social justice’; in fact, in many of the countries in which absolute poverty is still an acute problem, the concern for ‘social justice’ has become one of the greatest obstacles in the elimination of poverty.  In the West the rise of the great masses to tolerable comfort has been the effect of the general growth of wealth and has been merely slowed down by measures interfering with the market mechanism….  But the attempts to ‘correct’ the results of the market in the direction of ‘social justice’ have probably produced more injustice in the form of new privileges, obstacles to mobility and frustration of efforts than they have contributed to the alleviation of the lot of the poor.
Today is the 115th anniversary of Hayek‘s birth.
Be Sociable, Share!

Onde é o cinco?

Onde é o erro?


Cortes de carne

Conferência em Argentina

El Comité Organizador informa a Uds. de la realización del Quinto Congreso Internacional “La Escuela Austríaca de Economía en el Siglo XXI”.
Fecha de Realización: 17, 18 y 19 de Noviembre de 2014
Lugar de Realización: Campus Rosario – Universidad Católica Argentina (Av. Pellegrini 3314, Rosario – Argentina)
Áreas Temáticas:
-Teoría del Conocimiento.
-Filosofía Política.
-Lecturas en torno de la Escuela Austríaca de Economía.
Recepción de abstracts: hasta 05/09/2014 Recepción de Ponencias, Propuestas de Mesas Redondas y resúmenes ampliados: hasta
05/10/2014 (la aceptación de las ponencias queda sujeta a evaluación)
Idiomas Oficiales: Español, Portugués, Inglés, Italiano.
Contactos: ;
(Por favor dirigirse a ambas direcciones)
Web Site:

A tirania dos experts

A Dialogue on William Easterly's The Tyranny of Experts at the World Bank

|Peter Boettke|
William Easterly toured DC last week to discuss his new book, The Tyranny of Experts.  On Wednesday, he returned to the World Bank to engage in a dialogue on the book.  The World Bank website advertising the event reads:

quinta-feira, 8 de maio de 2014


Documentário: Stalin - O Tirano Vermelho [LEGENDADO PT-BR]

Documentário contando a história de Joseph Stalin, ditador soviético. Suas origens, seu início na política, sua chegada ao poder, seus atos para se perpetuar, sua vida privada e sua morte.

O "grande" Churchill

Churchill: "Apoyo firmemente el uso de gas venenoso contra tribus incivilizadas"

Publicado: 8 may 2014 | 11:09 GMT Última actualización: 8 may 2014 | 11:09 GMT
Documentos desclasificados del Archivo Nacional del Reino Unido revelan que en 1920 Winston Churchill, futuro primer ministro británico, ordenó el uso de gas mostaza para sofocar la rebelión en Mesopotamia, que costó la vida a unos 10.000 árabes.
"Si los depósitos de gas estuvieran disponibles en el sitio o si hubiera que trasladarlos, entonces ciertamente hay que aplicarlos para evitar una situación de emergencia. El Comandante debe defender sus posiciones con las armas que posee", escribió Winston Churchill, por entonces ministro de la Guerra del Gobierno británico, en un telegrama dirigido al Comandante británico Percy Cox.   

Según los archivos, por aquel entonces el Ejército británico disponía en Mesopotamia de 19.500 proyectiles de gas que excedentes desde la Primera Guerra Mundial, a los que se añadieron unos 15.000 proyectiles adicionales que fueron trasladados desde Egipto. 

Documentos descalificados y hechos públicos recientemente demuestran que el político británico sentía una extraña debilidad hacia este tipo de armas.  
"No entiendo esta aversión al uso del gas. Apoyo firmemente el uso de gas venenoso contra tribus incivilizadas", escribía Churchill, un año antes de los acontecimientos en Mesopotamia, cuando planeaba y ordenaba un ataque con armas químicas contra los bolcheviques que se hizo efectivo entre agosto y septiembre de 1919 en el norte de Rusia, alegando que el gas es un arma más compasiva que un proyectil explosivo, ya que obliga a un enemigo a aceptar una decisión con menos pérdidas de vidas. 

Texto completo en: